William J. Oliphant (1845–1930) was an American Confederate States Army veteran and photographer from Austin, Texas. He published the first photographs of buffalo hunts in North America.
William James Oliphant was born on September 30, 1845 in Lawrenceburg, Indiana. His father, William S. Oliphant (1813-1890), was a jeweller. His mother was Jane (Van Zile) Oliphant (1822-1867). He moved to Texas with his parents when he was seven years old, in 1853. The family settled in Austin, where his father’s jewellery store was located on Pecan Street, now known as Sixth Street.