Solomon Nunes Carvalho (April 27, 1815 – May 27, 1897) was an American painter, photographer, author and inventor. He may be best known as an explorer who traveled through the territory of Kansas, Colorado and Utah with John C. Frémont on his fifth expedition. Many famous images of the Old West are based on images he made, although many others have been lost or confused with those taken by Mathew Brady and other contemporaries.
He was born in 1815 in Charleston, South Carolina to Sarah Cohen D’Azevedo and her husband David Nunes Carvalho,who were both born in England to Jewish families of Portuguese descent. He was named for his grandfather (1743-pre-1811), who had escaped persecution in Portugal and lived in Amsterdam before finally settling in Britain, from which his two sons would emigrate to Barbados and then America. This Solomon’s father, David Nunes Carvalho would help establish the first Reformed Jewish congregation in the United States, the Reformed Society of Israelites, in Charleston in 1825. His brother (Solomon’s uncle), Emanuel Nunes Carvalho, was a cantor and rabbi in Barbados, Charleston and Philadelphia, where he died in 1817. By 1840, David Nunes Carvalho had moved his family to Philadelphia, where they lived in Mulberry Ward with a free black servant. According to family tradition, the younger Carvalho studied with Thomas Sully.