John Alvin Anderson (March 25, 1869 – June 26, 1948) was a Swedish-American photographer who spent most of his life in the United States. He is known for photographing Sioux Indians at the Rosebud Indian Reservation in South Dakota from 1885 until 1930. Many of his works are displayed at the Nebraska State Historical Society in Lincoln, Nebraska.
Anderson was the sixth child born to Anders Salomon Gabrielsson and Anna-Beata Magnusdotter. The family farmed in present-day Vinberg-Ljungby, near Falkenberg, in Halland, Sweden. Gabrielsson spent time in the United States in 1869, earning money to send home, and in May of the following year, shortly after Anderson was born, the entire family emigrated to Pennsylvania. Magnusdotter died in 1876, and her widowed husband moved the family an area of Nebraska with a large Scandinavian immigrant population in 1883.